Water Chemistry

Water chemistry analyses are carried out to identify and quantify the chemical components and properties of a certain sample of water. 

Water tests proposed by Abiolabs

  1. pH2
  2. Conductivity / Resistivity
  3. Total Dissolved solids
  4. Total Suspended Solids
  5. Total solids
  6. Total Hardness
  7. Calcium
  8. Magnesium
  9. Nitrate
  10. Corrosivity Index


  • pH
  • Conductivity / Resistivity
  • Solids
  • Total Hardness
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Nitrate
  • Corrosivity Index
pH

The pH is a figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid and higher values more alkaline. 

  • When low, causes bitter, metallic taste, corrosion and leaks in metal pipes
  • When high, causes slippery feeling water with soda taste and leads to scale deposits.

Method Process :

Applied standard: ISO 10523

Drinking Water
Spa / Pool Water
Irrigation Water
Treated Effluent

Test Report available within 5 working days after completion of tests.

To obtain reliable results, sampling shall be performed in an aseptic manner. Abiolabs offers trained samplers to meet your sampling needs.

Conductivity / Resistivity

The conductivity is the measure of a material’s ability to conduct an electriccurrent.

The measurementunit of electrical conductivity is micro-siemens per centimetre (S/cm).

Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is the reciprocal of electrical conductivity.It is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resists to conduct electric current.

A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows electric current. The measurement unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm-meter (Ω⋅m). Significant changes in conductivity or resistivity can be an indicator that a discharge or some other source of pollution has entered the water.

Applied standard: ISO 7888

Matrix : All type of water

Drinking Water
Spa / Pool Water
Irrigation Water
Treated Effluent

Test Report available within 5 working days after completion of tests.

To obtain reliable results, sampling shall be performed in an aseptic manner. Abiolabs offers trained samplers to meet your sampling needs.

Solids

Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in water or wastewater. Solids may affect water or effluent quality adversely in a number of ways.

Waters with high dissolved solids generally are of inferior palatability and may induce an unfavourable physiological reaction in the transient consumer.

Highly mineralized waters also are unsuitable for many industrial applications. Waters high in suspended solids maybe aesthetically unsatisfactory for such purposes as bathing.

“Total solids” is the term applied to the material residue left in the vessel after evaporation of a sample and its subsequent drying in an oven at a defined temperature.

Total solids include:


  • Total suspended solids: the portion of total solids retained by a filter of 2.0m under specified conditions. 
  • Total dissolved solids: portion of solids that passes through a filter of 2.0m (or smaller) under specified conditions.It refers to any minerals, salts, metals, cations or anions dissolved in water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) comprise inorganic salts (principally calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium,bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulphate) and some small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water.


Fixed solids is the term applied to the residue of total suspended, or dissolved solids after heating to dryness for a specified time at a specified temperature. The weight loss on ignition is called “volatile solids.” 

“Settleable solids” is the term applied to the material settling out of suspension within a defined period. It may include floating material, depending on the technique. 

Solids analyses are important in the control of biological and physical water treatment processes and for assessing compliance with regulatory agency limitations.

Applied standard: APHA 2540 A/B/C/D

Matrix : All type of water

Drinking Water
Spa / Pool Water
Irrigation Water
Treated Effluent

Test Report available within 5 working daysafter completion of tests.

To obtain reliable results, sampling shall be performed in an aseptic manner. Abiolabs offers trained samplers to meet your sampling needs.

Total Hardness

Water hardness is a measure of the amount of calcium and magnesium salts in water. Calcium and magnesium enter water mainly through the weathering of rocks. The more calcium and magnesium in water, the harder the water. Water hardness is usually expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/l) of dissolved calcium and magnesium carbonate.

The term “hardness” comes from the fact that it is hard to get soapsuds from soap or detergents in hard water. This happens because a variety of dissolved polyvalent metallic ions,predominantly calcium and magnesium cations, although other cations (e.g.aluminium, barium, iron, manganese, strontium and zinc) react strongly with negatively-charged chemicals like soap to form insoluble compounds. As a result, hard water is requiring considerably more soap to produce a lather and can reduce the effectiveness of the cleaning process.

Although hardness is caused by cations, it may also be discussed in terms of carbonate (temporary) and non-carbonate (permanent) hardness.

Total Hardness Scale :

Applied standard:

ISO 6059

APHA 2340 C

Matrix : All type of water

Drinking Water
Spa / Pool Water
Irrigation Water
Treated Effluent

Test Report available within 5 working days after completion of tests.

To obtain reliable results, sampling shall be performed in an aseptic manner. Abiolabs offers trained samplers to meet your sampling needs.

Calcium

The presence of calcium (fifth among the elements in order of abundance) in water supplies results from passage through or over deposits of limestone, dolomite, gypsum, and gypsiferous shale. The calcium content may range from zero to several hundred milligrams per litter, depending on the source and treatment of the water. Small concentrations of calcium carbonate combat corrosion of metal pipes by laying down a protective coating.

The calcium content may range from zero to several hundred milligrams per litter, depending on the source and treatment of the water. Small

concentrations of calcium carbonate combat corrosion of metal pipes by laying down a protective coating.

Appreciable calcium salts, on the other hand, precipitate on heating to form harmful scale in boilers, pipes, and cooking utensils.

Calcium contributes to the total hardness of water.  

Chemical softening treatment, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, or ion exchange is used to reduce calcium and the associated hardness.

Applied standard: APHA 3500-Ca D

Matrix : All type of water

Drinking Water
Spa / Pool Water
Irrigation Water
Treated Effluent

Test Report available within 5 working days after completion of tests.

To obtain reliable results, sampling shall be performed in an aseptic manner. Abiolabs offers trained samplers to meet your sampling needs.

Magnesium

Magnesium ranks eighth among the elements in order of abundance and is a common constituent of natural water. Important contributors to the hardness of a water, magnesium salts break down when heated, forming scale in boilers.

Concentrations greater than 125 mg/L also can have a cathartic and diuretic effect. 

Chemical softening, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, or ion exchange reduces the magnesium and associated hardness to acceptable levels.

 The magnesium concentration may vary from zero to several hundred milligrams per litter, depending on the source and treatment of the water.

Applied standard: APHA 3500-Mg

Matrix: All type of water

Drinking Water
Spa / Pool Water
Irrigation Water
Treated Effluent

Test Report available within 5 working days after completion of tests.

To obtain reliable results, sampling shall be performed in an aseptic manner. Abiolabs offers trained samplers to meet your sampling needs.

Nitrate

Nitrate is one of the most common groundwater contaminants in rural areas.It is regulated in drinking water primarily because excess levels can cause methemoglobinemia, or “blue baby” disease. Although nitrate levels that affect infants do not pose a direct threat to older children and adults,they do indicate the possible presence of other more serious residential or agricultural contaminants, such as bacteria or pesticides.

Nitrate in groundwater originates primarily from fertilizers, septics ystems, and manure storage or spreading operations. Fertilizer nitrogen that is not taken up by plants, volatilized, or carried away by surface runoff leaches to the groundwater in the form of nitrate. This not only makes the nitrogen unavailable to crops, but also can elevate the concentration in groundwater above the levels acceptable for drinking water quality. Nitrogen from manure similarly can be lost from fields, barnyards, or storage locations.Septic systems also can elevate groundwater nitrate concentrations because they remove only half of the nitrogen in wastewater, leaving the remaining half to percolate to groundwater.

Nitrate is an inorganic compound that occurs under a variety of conditions in the environment, both naturally and synthetically. Nitrate is composed of one atom of nitrogen (N) and three atoms of oxygen (O); the chemical symbol for nitrate is NO3. Nitrate does not normally cause health problems unless it is reduced to nitrite.

Applied standard: HACH – LCK 339

Matrix :

Drinking Water
Spa / Pool Water
Irrigation Water
Treated Effluent

Test Report available within 5 working days after completion of tests.

To obtain reliable results, sampling shall be performed in an aseptic manner. Abiolabs offers trained samplers to meet your sampling needs.

Corrosivity Index

Corrosivity is a measure of how aggressive water is at corroding pipes and fixtures. Corrosive water can mobilize lead and copper from pipes into drinking water and can eventually cause leaks in plumbing. 

One common index of corrosivity is the Langelier Index (LI). The LI is calculated using pH, temperature, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, and total hardness. The LI is a measure of the balance between pH and calcium carbonate CaCO₃. As the LI value becomes more negative, the water is increasingly under-saturated with CaCO₃ and therefore has increased corrosion potential. As the LI value becomes more positive, the water is increasingly over-saturated with CaCO₃. Over-saturation results in CaCO₃ precipitation which can coat and protect pipes from corrosion but can cause scaling in pipes, hot water heaters,and fixtures. While not a perfect analytical tool, the LI serves as a useful guide for assessing corrosive ability of well water.

Controlling corrosion:

Corrosiveness may be increased by installing water softeners, aeration devices, increasing hot water temperatures, chlorinating water or improper matching of metal pipes. Corrosion control options include pre-treatment systems, installation of non-conductive unions, reducing hot water temperature, and replacing metal piping with CPVC. Pre-treatment systems include neutralizing tank filters and caustic liquid treatment. These systems change the pH, hardness, and/or alkalinity to achieve a less corrosive water chemistry.