A Y chromosome DNA test (Y-DNA test) is a genealogical DNA test used to explore a man’s patrilineal or direct father’s-line ancestry.
Male ancestors carried their Y-DNA line along their migrations. Special sections on the Y chromosome determine a male’sY haplogroup, revealing the origins of his ancestors as evidenced by common DNA markers. Indeed, the human Y chromosome is normally unable to recombine with the Xchromosome, except for small pieces of pseudo-autosomal regions at the telomeres (which comprise about 5% of the chromosome’s length). These regions are relics of ancient homology between the X and Y chromosomes.Paternal haplogroups are thereof defined by mutations in the non-recombining potions of DNA from the Y Chromosome.
Because only males have a Y chromosome, in Y-Linked inheritance, a mutation can only be passed from father to son. As a result, only men can follow their paternal lineage. However, the woman could search for their paternal line from a DNA sample of paternal line male person.
If you are a woman, choose one of these male persons to obtain your
This type of testing identifies genetic variations in mitochondrial DNA. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the cell nucleus, cell structures called mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA (known as mitochondrial DNA). Both males and females have mitochondrial DNA, which is passed on from their mothers, so this type of testing can be used by either sex. It provides information about the direct female ancestral line.
Mitochondrial DNA is a proper tool for the determination of the origin of populations
The DNA Mitochondrial (mtDNA) is transmitted only from the mother who herself received it from her mother and beyond. Mitochondria are organelle were biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. Located in the cytoplasm of the cells, mtDNA is independent of nuclear DNA. The transmission of mtDNA from mother to children is essentially unchanged. MtDNA are not involved in recombinant processes and their variants are due only to mutations caused by an error during cell division. These mutations form groups called haplogroups. Specific mitochondrial haplogroup are typically found indifferent regions of the world and are used to genetically distinguish populations. All people with a same “common maternal ancestor” will share a similar mtDNA. Therefore, mtDNA allows to trace the maternal line also called maternal haplogroup who will tell you about a specific line of ancestry.The woman at the root of all these groups is commonly called Mitochondrial Eve. She is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor of all humans alive on Earth today.
Frequently asked Question
Mitochondrial inheritance is simple: men and women get it from their moms, who got it from their moms, who got it from their moms,and so on, and so on, and so on, all the way back to a theoretical woman called Mitochondrial Eve, who lived about 160,000 years ago. To obtain your mtDNA result, we analyse the Hyper Variable Region HVR1 (from position 16024 to 16365 of the mtDNA) and HVR2 (from position 73 to 340 of the mtDNA) of the mitochondria. The results obtained will be compared to the Cambridge Reference Sequence* (CRS). We want to find out the deviation from this standard sequence to give you your maternal genealogy. Only the differences between your sequence and the CRS are shown in the table of result.In the table of result, the deviations between your sequence and the CRS are named by their location and mutated base.
|152||T||C||Means that there is a C (cytosine) instead of the expected T (thymine) found in the CRS at base position 152|
|309.1||:||C||Means that there is an insertion of base C (cytosine) at base position 309|
|249||C||Del||Means that there is a deletion of base C (cytosine) at base position 249|
Over time, the copying process can create small changes known as polymorphisms or mutations. If these changes are in the mother’s egg cell, the child produced from that egg inherits them. If female, the child may someday pass that same change on to her own children.
Slowly, these changes build up down maternal lineages. They define and mark branches on the maternal tree. The more regions of the mtDNA coincide between two persons, the closer they are related.
When humans left Africa tens of thousands of years ago, they departed in small groups that migrated into different parts of the world. Over many generations,each group developed distinct mutations allowing us to identify one from the other. We call these groups of mutations haplogroups, and they can tell us which migratory routes our paternal ancestors travelled.