Maternal / Paternal Lineage
Maternal Ancestry DNA test:
This type of testing identifies genetic variations in mitochondrial DNA. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the cell nucleus, cell structures called mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA (known as mitochondrial DNA). Both males and females have mitochondrial DNA, which is passed on from their mothers, so this type of testing can be used by either sex. It provides information about the direct female ancestral line.
Mitochondrial DNA is a proper tool for the determination of the origin of populations
The DNA Mitochondrial (mtDNA) is transmitted only from the mother who herself received it from her mother and beyond. Mitochondria are organelle were biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. Located in the cytoplasm of the cells, mtDNA is independent of nuclear DNA. The transmission of mtDNA from mother to children is essentially unchanged. MtDNA are not involved in recombinant processes and their variants are due only to mutations caused by an error during cell division. These mutations form groups called haplogroups. Specific mitochondrial haplogroup are typically found indifferent regions of the world and are used to genetically distinguish populations. All people with a same “common maternal ancestor” will share a similar mtDNA. Therefore, mtDNA allows to trace the maternal line also called maternal haplogroup who will tell you about a specific line of ancestry.The woman at the root of all these groups is commonly called Mitochondrial Eve. She is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor of all humans alive on Earth today.
Y Chromosome DNA – The Genetics of Paternal Haplogroups
A Ychromosome DNA test (Y-DNA test) is a genealogical DNA test used to explore a man’s patrilineal or direct father’s-line ancestry. Male ancestors carried their Y-DNA line along their migrations. Special sections on the Y chromosome determine a male’sY haplogroup, revealing the origins of his ancestors as evidenced by common DNA markers. Indeed, the human Y chromosome is normally unable to recombine with the Xchromosome, except for small pieces of pseudo-autosomal regions at the telomeres (which comprise about 5% of the chromosome’s length). These regions are relics of ancient homology between the X and Y chromosomes.Paternal haplogroups are thereof defined by mutations in the non-recombining potions of DNA from the Y Chromosome. Because only males have a Y chromosome, in Y-Linked inheritance, a mutation can only be passed from father to son. As a result, only men can follow their paternal lineage. However, the woman could search for their paternal line from a DNA sample of paternal line male person (Fig9).